Zones 3 and warmer
Grow as a winter crop in mild-climate areas. Where springs are cool, you may grow as a spring crop, otherwise does best in cool weather in the fall
Climate Zones Maps
Full sun, partial shade will reduce head size
Well-drained with plenty of calcium; prefers pH 6.0 to 6.8, but will tolerate pH up to 7.2
Regular water, keep soil evenly moist, but not wet
Plant 12 to 24 inches (30 to 60 cm) apart; wider spacing will yield larger heads, and leave 2 to 3 feet (.61 to 1 m) between rows
Harvest broccoli heads when they have reached maximum size, are still compact, and before the buds loosen, open into flowers, or turn yellow
Planting Site: Broccoli needs full sun; partial shade will reduce head size. To minimize disease, allow three years between plantings of broccoli and other cabbage family plants (cabbage, kale, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts). Broccoli is a heavy feeder and it thrives being planted in an area where previous crops were legumes such as peas or clover.
Planting & Growing Guidelines: There are early, middle and late cultivars to choose from. Hybrids tend to be more productive than open-pollinated cultivars. If you've had problems in the past, choose cultivars that are tolerant to problems like hollow stem, black rot, and downy mildew. In the spring, you can start seedlings indoors about 2 months before the last spring frost, and set out hardened-off transplants in the garden a month before the last frost. In the fall, sow crops directly into the garden about 90 days before the first fall frost (Example: sow seeds in August for a late crop in October or later), or transplant seedlings about 60 days before the first fall frost. Direct sowing is only an option for fall plantings because the soil temperature is over 50° F (10° C), but the air is cool (between 60° and 75° F (16° to 24° C). Broccoli seedlings are very vulnerable to excess heat (anything over 80° F (27° C)) which will dry them out and result in little to no production of a head. Cultivate or mulch to keep the soil evenly moist. Lack of water will stress the plant and can lead to its not forming a head, or making it more vulnerable to insects and pests. Excess water will stunt or kill it. If your soil tends to get waterlogged, plant in raised beds.
Fertilizer: Lightly broadcast some 10-10-10 over the area, till in, and then plant transplants or sow seeds. When the plants start to form a head, side-dress with 1 tablespoon (15 ml) per plant of 5-10-10, or one large handful of good compost which generally equals the same. Sprinkle around the base of the plant, but not up against the stem, and water in.
Pest and Disease Prevention: Use cardboard or metal "collars" to deter cutworms. Row covers will help deter flea beetles, cabbageworms, and root maggots. Spray or dust with Bacillus thruingiensis if cabbageworms are a problem. To avoid soilborne diseases, don't plant broccoli or other cabbage-family plants (cabbage, kale, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts) in the same spot more than once every three years. Cold, rainy weather can bring on diseases that cause heads to rot, planting cultivars with dome-shaped heads helps since water drains off more quickly.
Common Problems: In some areas, spring broccoli will bolt (go to seed early) at the beginning of hot weather. Choose quick-maturing cultivars and expect spring grown broccoli heads to be smaller then those grown in the fall.
Days to Maturity: 70 to 95 days.
Harvest and Storage: Harvest broccoli heads when they have reached maximum size, are still compact, and before the buds loosen, open into flowers, or turn yellow. Spring crops should be harvested once with as much of the edible stem as possible. Cut fall heads with less stem attached, leaving as much of the plant intact as possible to produce smaller sideshoots or "florets," which you can harvest until a hard freeze. When you bring broccoli indoors, soak the heads in lightly salted water (1 to 2 tablespoons (15 to 30 ml) of salt per gallon (4 l)) for 30 minutes before cooking or storing. This will drive out any cabbageworms hiding in the heads. Broccoli will keep in the refrigerator in a plastic bag for 7 to 10 days and can be eaten fresh, and it freezes well for future use.
Special Tips: Where temperatures stay above 40° F (4.4° C) broccoli will grow all winter.
Broccoli can provide you with some special cholesterol-lowering benefits if you will cook it by steaming. The fiber-related components in broccoli do a better job of binding together with bile acids in your digestive tract when they've been steamed. When this binding process takes place, it's easier for bile acids to be excreted, and the result is a lowering of your cholesterol levels. Raw broccoli still has cholesterol-lowering ability—just not as much.
Broccoli has a strong, positive impact on our body's detoxification system, and researchers have recently identified one of the key reasons for this detox benefit. Glucoraphanin, gluconasturtiian, and glucobrassicin are 3 glucosinolate phytonutrients found in a special combination in broccoli. This dynamic trio is able to support all steps in body's detox process, including activation, neutralization, and elimination of unwanted contaminants. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are the detox-regulating molecules made from broccoli's glucosinolates, and they help control the detox process at a genetic level.
Broccoli may help us solve our vitamin D deficiency epidemic. When large supplemental doses of vitamin D are needed to offset deficiency, ample supplies of vitamin K and vitamin A help keep our vitamin D metabolism in balance. Broccoli has an unusually strong combination of both vitamin A (in the form of beta-carotene) and vitamin K. For people faced with the need to rebuild vitamin D stores through vitamin D supplements, broccoli may be an ideal food to include in the diet.
Broccoli is a particularly rich source of a flavonoid called kaempferol. Recent research has shown the ability of kaempferol to lessen the impact of allergy-related substances on our body. This kaempferol connection helps to explain the unique anti-inflammatory benefits of broccoli, and it should also open the door to future research on the benefits of broccoli for a hypoallergenic diet.
Studies have shown that even kids like broccoli and one way to ensure that they enjoy it is to cook it properly by using our Healthy Steaming method. Overcooked broccoli becomes soft and mushy, an indication that it has lost both nutrients and flavor. Begin by cutting broccoli florets into quarters and let sit for several minutes before cooking to enhance its health-promoting benefits. Steam for 5 minutes. See Healthiest Way of Cooking Broccoli below.
You'll want to include broccoli as one of the cruciferous vegetables you eat on a regular basis if you want to receive the fantastic health benefits provided by the cruciferous vegetable family. At a minimum, include cruciferous vegetables as part of your diet 2-3 times per week, and make the serving size at least 1-1/2 cups. Even better from a health standpoint, enjoy broccoli and other vegetables from the cruciferous vegetable group 4-5 times per week, and increase your serving size to 2 cups.
It's no coincidence that more than 300 research studies on broccoli have converged in one unique area of health science—the development of cancer—and its relationship to three metabolic problems in the body. Those three problems are (1) chronic inflammation (2) oxidative stress, and (3) inadequate detoxification. While these types of problems have yet to become part of the public health spotlight, they are essential to understanding broccoli's unique health benefits. Over the past 5 years, research has made it clear that our risk of cancer in several different organ systems is related to the combination of these three problems.
Exposure to potentially toxic substances in our food and water, or in the air we breathe both indoors and outdoors, exposure to allergy-triggering substances, poor general health, dietary deficiencies, use of prescription and over-the-counter medications, and other lifestyle practices can result in a level of danger to our bodies that prompts our inflammatory system to work in overdrive on a 24/7 basis. Researchers often refer to this phenomenon as "chronic inflammation." Often contributing to this level of danger is a weakened detox ability in our body. If our liver, skin, and other organ systems cannot keep up with and detoxify the number of potential toxins that we encounter, too many potential toxins remain at large throughout our body. Once again, the result is a level of risk that prompts chronic inflammation.
On a more temporary, short-term basis, inflammation is part of good health. Whether physical or chemical in nature, whenever our body detects a wound, it typically responds by trying to heal with an inflammatory response. That process is healthy, so long as it is not constant and uninterrupted. But unlike the helpful inflammation that takes place we get a simple cut or bruise, chronic inflammation—when it becomes a standard feature of our metabolism—is incompatible with good health. When our bodies are overwhelmed day in and day out with chronic inflammation, many other metabolic balances can get thrown out of kilter, including the balance in our oxygen metabolism. An unwanted imbalance starts to occur in which too many overly reactive, oxygen-containing molecules are formed. This condition is called oxidative stress. The increased presence of these overly reactive molecules can do damage to many parts of our cells, including their genetic material (and especially their deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA). Over time, the constant and cumulative DNA damage inside our cells can pose a major risk factor for conversion of healthy cells into cancerous ones.
It's equally possible for this sequence of events to start not with chronic, excessive inflammation, but with chronic oxidative stress. Over time, when overly reactive oxygen-containing molecules cause damage to DNA and other cell structures, our body reads this situation as being highly dangerous and it initiates an inflammatory response to try and reduce the threat posed by the oxidative stress. In either case, we end up with a combination of inadequate detoxification of toxic substances, chronic inflammation and oxidative stress that puts us at greater risk for developing cancer.
In a way that might be unique among foods, the nutrients found in broccoli are able to change this set of connections between inflammation, oxidative stress, detox and cancer. In fact, it would be fair to describe broccoli as containing anti-inflammatory nutrients, antioxidant nutrients, detox-support nutrients, and anti-cancer nutrients as well!
When threatened with dangerous levels of potential toxins, or dangerous numbers of overly-reactive, oxygen-containing molecules, signals are sent within our body to our inflammatory system, directing it to "kick in" and help protect our body from potential damage. One key signaling device is a molecule called Nf-kappaB. When faced with the type of dangers described above, the NF-kappaB signaling system is used to "rev up" our inflammatory response and increase production of inflammatory components (for example, IL-6, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, iNOS and COX-2). This process works beautifully in temporary, short-term circumstances when healing from injury is required. When it continues indefinitely at a constant pace, however, it can put us at risk for serious health problems, including the development of cancer.
Research studies have made it clear that the NF-kappaB signaling system that is used to "rev up" our inflammatory response can be significantly suppressed by isothiocyanates (ITCs). ITCs—the compounds made from glucosinolates found in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables—actually help to shut down the genetic machinery used to produce NF-kappaB and other components of the inflammatory system. These anti-inflammatory benefits of ITCs have been demonstrated in the laboratory, and with consumption of the ITCs themselves. While they have yet to be demonstrated on consumption of broccoli in an everyday diet, we fully expect future research to show anti-inflammatory benefits from the routine consumption of broccoli (and its glucosinolates), not just from consumption of ITCs.
Lack of omega-3 fat is dietary problem that can cause over-activation of the inflammatory system. The reason is simple: many key anti-inflammatory messaging molecules (like PGH3, TXA3, PGI3, and LTE5) are made from omega-3 fats. We are not accustomed to thinking about non-fatty vegetables as sources of omega-3 fats, but we need to change our thinking in this area. While it is true that there are limited amounts of omega-3s in vegetables like broccoli, it is equally true that their levels of omega-3s can still play an important role in balancing our inflammatory system activity. In 100 calories' worth of broccoli (about 2 cups) there are approximately 400 milligrams of omega-3s (in the form of alpha-linolenic acid, or ALA). That amount of ALA falls into the same general ballpark as the amount provided by one soft gel capsule of flax oil. While we would not want to depend on broccoli as our sole source of dietary omega-3s, we still get important anti-inflammatory benefits from the omega-3s it provides.
As mentioned earlier in this section, chronic inflammation can sometimes get triggered by overexposure to allergy-related substances. In this context, broccoli has yet another anti-inflammatory trick up its sleeve, because it is a rich source of one particular phytonutrient (a flavonol) called kaempferol. Especially inside of our digestive tract, kaempferol has the ability to lessen the impact of allergy-related substances (by lowering the immune system's production of IgE-antibodies). By lessening the impact of allergy-related substances, the kaempferol in broccoli can help lower our risk of chronic inflammation.
Amongst all of the commonly consumed cruciferous vegetables, broccoli stands out as the most concentrated source of a premiere antioxidant nutrient—vitamin C. This central antioxidant vitamin can provide longer-term support of oxygen metabolism in the body if it is accompanied by flavonoids that allow it to recycle. Broccoli provides many such flavonoids in significant amounts, including the flavonoids kaempferol and quercitin. Also concentrated in broccoli are the carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-carotene. All three of these carotenoids function as key antioxidants. In the case of lutein and beta-carotene, broccoli has been shown not only to provide significant amounts of these antioxidants but to significantly increase their blood levels when consumed in the amount of three cups. Other antioxidants provided by broccoli in beneficial amounts include vitamin E and the minerals manganese and zinc.
Considered as a group, the vitamins, minerals, flavonoids, and carotenoids contained in broccoli work to lower risk of oxidative stress in the body. The ability of these nutrients to support oxygen metabolism and avoid excess formation of overly reactive, oxygen-containing molecules makes them equally helpful in lowering risk of chronic inflammation and risk of cancer. If cancer development is compared to a 3-legged stool, the antioxidant benefits of broccoli can be viewed as weakening one leg of the stool, namely the leg called "oxidative stress." We've already seen how the glucosinolates and omega-3 fats in broccoli can be viewed as helping to weaken a second leg of the stool (chronic inflammation). In the next section, we'll look at a third leg of the stool (inadequate detoxification) and see how the nutrients found in broccoli can serve to weaken this leg as well.
Most toxins that pose a risk to our cells must be detoxified in our body by a 2-step process. What's remarkable about broccoli is its ability to alter activity in both of these two detox steps. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) made from the glucosinolates in broccoli are well-documented modifiers of the first step in detoxification (called Phase I). In fact, some ITCs like sulforaphane can actually help shut down the genetic machinery that produces certain Phase I enzymes. ITCs are equally capable of altering the activity of enzymes involved in the second step of detoxification (called Phase II). From research in the field of genetics, we know that ITCs can help bridge gaps in Phase II activity when it is insufficient. Taken in combination, the impact of ITCs on Phase I and II detox events is unique—and equally unique is the presence of glucosinolate compounds in broccoli that can be used to make ITCs. Glucosinolates like glucoraphanin, gluconasturtiian, and glucobrassicin are simply not found in other foods in the same combination and concentration that is offered by broccoli. By helping to promote as well as regulate detox activity in our cells, the ITCs made from broccoli can help prevent insufficient detoxification of dangerous substances that threaten our cells.
The unique combination of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-detoxification components in broccoli make it a unique food in terms of cancer prevention. Connections between cancer development and oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and inadequate detoxification are so well-documented in the research that any food improving all three of these metabolic problems would be highly likely to lower our risk of cancer. In the case of broccoli, the research is strongest in showing decreased risk of prostate cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer, and ovarian cancer. We expect that risk of other cancer types will also eventually be shown to undergo reduction from regular consumption of broccoli.
Recent studies have also provided us with a much better idea about the amount of broccoli that we need to lower our cancer risk. At the lower end of the spectrum, it looks like an average of 1/2 cup of broccoli per day—only 22 calories' worth of broccoli!—is enough to provide some measurable benefits. Few people have broccoli on a daily basis. But a 2-cup serving twice a week would still meet this minimum average amount. It's important to remember how little this amount actually in within the context of one week's food. A person eating 2,000 calories per day would be consuming 14,000 calories per week. A 2-cup serving of broccoli twice a week would provide about 178 calories—only 1% of the total weekly calories! At the higher end of the spectrum, studies show that more broccoli might be needed to accomplish other cancer-preventing tasks. For example, one study showed significantly higher urinary excretion of potential carcinogens from well-done, grilled meats given daily consumption of broccoli in the range of 9 ounces (250 grams) per day. That gram amount corresponds to approximately 1.6 cups of broccoli on a daily basis. We've also seen a study showing that "generous" amounts of broccoli can help optimize levels of antioxidants in the blood, especially beta-carotene and lutein. (Optimal antioxidant levels can help lower the risk of oxidative stress in healthy cells, which also helps lower their risk of becoming cancerous.) In this study, the term "generous" was used to describe consumption of broccoli in the amount of 3 cups daily. Once again, that amount would not be ridiculously high in terms of calories—3 cups would provide about 132 calories, or 6-7% of a 2,000-calorie diet. But it might be a greater amount that many people would want to consume on a regular basis.
For us, the bottom line here is not to treat broccoli like garnish. In recipes like our Asian-Flavored Broccoli with Tofu or 5-Minute Broccoli with Feta Cheese and Kalamata Olives recipes, we use 1 pound of broccoli to provide two servings. That's approximately 1.5 cups of broccoli per serving. There is no reason to shy away from 2-3 cup servings of broccoli when enjoying this cruciferous vegetable, especially if you want to optimize its cancer-preventing benefits. But make sure you're not simply "decorating" your plate with single broccoli stalk and floret.
The digestive support provided by broccoli falls into two basic categories: fiber support, and ITC (isothiocyanate) support. At approximately 1 gram of dietary fiber for every 10 calories, you don't have to eat much broccoli to get a large amount of your daily requirement! For 100 calories—only 5% of a 2,000-calorie diet—you get about 10 grams of fiber, or 40% of the Daily Value (DV). And, 250 calories of broccoli (about 12% of a 2,000-calorie diet) will give you the full daily requirement for this important nutrient! Few components of food support our digestive system as well as fiber. The speed that food travels through us, the consistency of food as it moves through our intestine, and bacterial populations in our intestine are all supported as well as regulated by dietary fiber.
Alongside of broccoli's dietary fibers are its glucosinolates. These phytonutrients are converted by our bodies into isothiocyanates (ITCs). ITCs—and particularly sulforaphane—help protect the health of our stomach lining by helping prevent bacterial overgrowth of Helicobacter pylori or too much clinging by this bacterium to our stomach wall. Broccoli sprouts appear to have especially strong stomach support properties in this regard.
Although research in this area is still in the early stages, anti-inflammatory substances found in cruciferous vegetables are becoming the topic of increasing interest with respect to heart disease. One particular focus here involves the anti-inflammatory properties of sulforaphane, one of the isothiocyanates (ITCs) derived from the glucoraphanin in broccoli. In some individuals susceptible to high blood sugar, sulforaphane may be able to prevent (or even reverse) some of the damage to blood vessel linings that can be cause by chronic blood sugar problems. Decreased risk of heart attacks and strokes may also eventually be linked in a statistically significant way to intake of broccoli and its glucoraphanin.
A second area you can count on broccoli for cardiovascular support involves its cholesterol-lowering ability. Our liver uses cholesterol as a basic building block to product bile acids. Bile acids are specialized molecules that aid in the digestion and absorption of fat through a process called emulsification. These molecules are typically stored in fluid form in our gall bladder, and when we eat a fat-containing meal, they get released into the intestine where they help ready the fat for interaction with enzymes and eventual absorption up into the body. When we eat broccoli, fiber-related nutrients in this cruciferous vegetable bind together with some of the bile acids in the intestine in such a way that they simply stay inside the intestine and pass out of our body in a bowel movement, rather than getting absorbed along with the fat they have emulsified. When this happens, our liver needs to replace the lost bile acids by drawing upon our existing supply of cholesterol, and as a result, our cholesterol level drops down. Broccoli provides us with this cholesterol-lowering benefit whether it is raw or cooked. However, a recent study has shown that the cholesterol-lowering ability of raw broccoli improves significantly when it is steamed. In fact, when the cholesterol-lowering ability of steamed broccoli was compared with the cholesterol-lowering ability of the prescription drug cholestyramine (a medication that is taken for the purpose of lowering cholesterol), broccoli bound 33% as many bile acids (based on a standard of comparison involving total dietary fiber).
The B-complex vitamins in broccoli can also make a major contribution to our cardiovascular health. Especially with respect to excessive formation of homocysteine—an event which raises our risk of atherosclerosis, stroke, and heart attack—B-complex vitamin deficiency intake can pose a major risk. Three B vitamins especially important for lowering our risk of hyperhomocysteinemia (excessive formation of homocysteine) are vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate. By making an important contribution to our B6 and folate intake, broccoli can help us lower our risk of excessive homocysteine formation and cardiovascular problems that are related to excess homocysteine.
Three other areas of health benefits are important to mention when considering broccoli and its unique combination of nutrients. The first area is eye health. Two carotenoids found in significant concentrations in broccoli—lutein and zeaxanthin—play an especially important role in the health of the eye. In fact, no tissue in the body is more concentrated with lutein than the area in the outer portion of the retina (called the peripheral retina). Similarly, in the macula near the central portion of the retina, zeaxanthin is uniquely concentrated. Risk of problems involving the macula of the eye (for example, macular degeneration) and problems involving the lens area of the eye (for example, cataracts) have both been show to lessen with intake of foods (including broccoli) that provide significant amounts of the lutein and zeaxanthin carotenonids.
A second area is skin support, including support of sun-damaged skin. Here it is the glucoraphanin found in broccoli—converted into sulforaphane by the body—that has received the most research attention. Since skin cells can carry out the process of detoxification, it may be detox-related benefits of sulforaphane that are especially important in helping to counteract sun damage.
A third area of increasing research interest involves the metabolism of vitamin D. Broccoli is not a source of this vitamin, but it is an excellent source of vitamin K and also of vitamin A (in one of its precursor forms, beta-carotene). Many individuals have large vitamin D deficiencies that cannot be remedied through diet alone, and these deficiencies require sizable amounts of vitamin D to be provided through dietary supplementation. When large supplemental doses of vitamin D are needed to offset deficiency, ample supplies of vitamin K and vitamin A appear to help keep our vitamin D metabolism in the proper balance. Assuring adequate intake of vitamins K and A alongside of vitamin D supplementation may turn out to be important in achieving optimal vitamin D supplementation results and avoiding potential problems related to supplementation. Broccoli may turn out to play a particularly helpful role in balancing this set of events by providing its unusually strong combination of both vitamin A and vitamin K.
Broccoli is a member of the cabbage family, and is closely related to cauliflower. Its cultivation originated in Italy. Broccolo, its Italian name, means "cabbage sprout." Broccoli's name is derived from the Latin word brachium, which means branch or arm, a reflection of its tree-like shape that features a compact head of florets attached by small stems to a larger stalk. Because of its different components, this vegetable provides a complex of tastes and textures, ranging from soft and flowery (the florets) to fibrous and crunchy (the stem and stalk). Its color can range from deep sage to dark green to purplish-green, depending upon the variety. One of the most popular types of broccoli sold in North America is known as Italian green, or Calabrese, named after the Italian province of Calabria where it first grew.
Other vegetables related to broccoli are broccolini, a mix between broccoli and gai-lin (Chinese broccoli), and broccoflower, a cross between broccoli and cauliflower. Broccoli sprouts have also recently become popular as a result of research uncovering their high concentration of the anti-cancer phytonutrient, sulforaphane.
Broccoli has its roots in Italy. In ancient Roman times, it was developed from wild cabbage, a plant that more resembles collards than broccoli. It spread through out the Near East where it was appreciated for its edible flower heads and was subsequently brought back to Italy where it was further cultivated. Broccoli was introduced to the United States in colonial times, popularized by Italian immigrants who brought this prized vegetable with them to the New World.
Choose broccoli with floret clusters that are compact and not bruised. They should be uniformly colored, either dark green, sage or purple-green, depending upon variety, and with no yellowing. In addition, they should not have any yellow flowers blossoming through, as this is a sign of over maturity. The stalk and stems should be firm with no slimy spots appearing either there or on the florets. If leaves are attached, they should be vibrant in color and not wilted.
Place broccoli in a plastic bag, removing as much of the air from the bag as possible. Store in the refrigerator where it will keep for 10 days. Do not wash broccoli before storing because exposure to water encourages spoilage. Partial heads of broccoli should be placed in a well-sealed container or plastic bag and refrigerated. Since the vitamin C content starts to quickly degrade once broccoli has been cut, it is best to use it within a couple of days. Broccoli that has been blanched and then frozen can stay up to a year. Leftover cooked broccoli should be placed in tightly covered container and stored in the refrigerator where it will keep for a few days.
Rinse broccoli under cold running water. Cut florets into quarters for quick and even cooking. Be sure to enjoy the stems and leaves of broccoli; they provide a good balance of flavors. Peel the broccoli stem and cut the stem into 1/2" slices To get unique health benefits from broccoli, let it sit for several minutes before cooking.
If you're cooking broccoli, make sure to support your nourishment by sticking with a low cooking temperature in a range that includes the steaming temperature of 212°F (100°C), with a cooking times of 5 minutes at the most. Since the fibrous stems take longer to cook, they can be prepared separately for a few minutes before adding the florets. For quicker cooking, make lengthwise slits in the stems. While people do not generally eat the leaves, they are perfectly edible and contain concentrated amounts of nutrients.
We recommend Healthy Steaming broccoli for maximum nutrition and flavor. Fill the bottom of a steamer pot with 2 inches of water. While waiting for the water to come to a rapid boil prepare broccoli florets and stems. Steam stems for 2 minutes before adding the florets and leaves. Steam for 5 more minutes. Toss with our Mediterranean Dressing and top with your favorite optional ingredients..
The principle of a 212°F (100°C) or lower cooking temperature leaves you with several cooking options for your broccoli. Our cooking method of choice for this cruciferous vegetable is steaming. We've seen studies on flavonoids in broccoli, B complex vitamins in broccoli, vitamin C in broccoli, as well as carotenoids and chlorophyll and glucosinolates in broccoli, and in all cases, steaming has been shown to do a better job of preserving nutrients than other cooking methods. You'll find some websites encouraging you to microwave your vegetables, including broccoli. We don't believe that this recommendation is supported by the research. But in addition, we believe that it's important for you to understand why. Many nutrients can be lost from food when the food surface comes into direct contact with water. Hotter water temperatures leech more nutrients from food, as will longer cooking times. Most research on microwaved broccoli has involved the placement of broccoli in a microwave container that has been partially or completely filled with water. That practice means direct water contact with all or part of the broccoli surfaces. Steaming, by comparison, leaves the broccoli in contact with steam only and can reduce nutrient loss for this reason. It's possible to steam broccoli in a microwave, but since metal containers (like stainless steel) cannot be used in a microwave oven, plastic microwave steamers are the only widely available option here, and we generally try to avoid the heating of foods in plastic in the microwave due to risk of plastic migration into the food. All of the factors described above makes it difficult to microwave broccoli with as little direct water contact or as shortened cooking times as steaming. We also like the more uniform exposure to heat that occurs with steaming.
In general, we try to avoid the stir-frying of foods in oil due to risk of nutrient damage in the oil from high heat. That being said, we have seen a study of broccoli stir-frying that produced some fairly encouraging results with respect to nutrient retention in the broccoli. (The study did not measure nutrient damage in the oil.) The stir-frying took place for 3-1/2 minutes in a frying pan heated to 248°-284°F (120°-140°C). Approximately two-thirds or more of the nutrients examined (including vitamins, minerals, phenols, and glucosinolates) were retained after stir-frying. Given these results, if you are planning to stir-fry your broccoli, we'd recommend a lower-heat skillet (at approximately 250°F/121°C) and a relatively short stir-frying time of about 3 minutes or less.
Both cooked and raw broccoli can make excellent additions to your meal plan. If you enjoy raw broccoli, by all means include it in your diet! There may be some special advantages for your digestive tract when broccoli is eaten in uncooked form. And if you're concerned about issues involving enzymes and sulfur compounds in broccoli—don't be! With fresh raw broccoli, simple slicing a few minutes prior to eating or thorough chewing of unsliced pieces will help activate sulfur-metabolizing enzymes. Another form of broccoli you may also want to try in you enjoy raw broccoli is broccoli sprouts. Some of the nutrients found in broccoli—like vitamin C—are especially concentrated in broccoli sprouts. Remember that all raw broccoli requires more thorough chewing than cooked broccoli, so take your time enjoying the textures and flavors of this amazing vegetable.
We've been especially impressed in the most recent research by the impact of uncooked broccoli—as well as uncooked broccoli sprouts—on the health of the stomach and stomach lining. Many stomach problems have been linked in research studies with overgrowth of a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori, and also with excessive attachment of this bacterium to the inner stomach lining. Raw broccoli sprouts appear to provide special stomach support with respect to these unwanted overgrowth and over-attachment circumstances. It's not that steamed broccoli provides no support in this regard, because it does provide support. It's just that uncooked broccoli and broccoli sprouts may be especially helpful in providing these benefits. We've seen several research studies using what's called "HG broccoli," or high glucosinolate broccoli, to investigate genetic activities in the stomach lining cells. The glucosinolates in broccoli are clearly a key part of broccoli's ability to support stomach health, and they are very likely to alter gene expression in cells that provide the stomach with its inner lining. HG broccoli is not a commercially marketed form of broccoli that you can find in the grocery store, but ordinary broccoli will still provide you with plenty of glucosinolate phytonutrients.